N.I. Trifonov (1), V.O. Polyakova (1, 2), D.S. Medvedev (1), N.S. Lin'kova (1, 3)
1-Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, Dunamo pr., 3, Saint Petersburg, 197110, Russian Federation;
2-Ott Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology, Mendeleevskaya line 3, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation;
3-Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya str., 29, Saint Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation

Introduction. Significance of chronic parodontitis is determined by not only of the degree of the prevalence rate, severity of the disease, but also by the low efficacy of the treatment and diagnosis at the early stage of disease. Nowadays there are not completely understood molecular and cellular mechanisms of pathological changes of paradontium tissues. This is the reason of low efficacy of the conservative therapy and prevention of this pathology in patients of the various age. The aim of the investigation is to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms of the dysfunction of buccal cells in chronic parodontitis patients of the middle, elderly and old age. Methods. There was the investigated buccal cells material from middle, elderly and old age cases with and without chronic parodontitis. There were used both the method of immunofluorescense confocal microscopy and morphometrical method for the determination of the expression of signal molecules in buccal cells. Results. In normal buccal epithelium the expression of p16 caspase-dependent apoptosis marker increased by 2–5 times in cases of from the middle to elderly age. In chronic parodontitis cases of middle, elderly and old people in comparison with normal people of the similar age in buccal epithelium the expression of proinflommatory cytokine TNFα increased by 8–10 times, the expression of p53 caspase-dependent apoptosis marker increased by 3–4 times and expression of AIF increased by 3–5 times. Moreover, the most significant increase in the expression of these molecules in buccal cells was observed in elderly patients. Conclusion. We suppose TNFα, р53 an AIF in buccal epithelium to be the most informative molecules for the early diagnostics of chronic parodontitis in people elder than 45 years. Moreover, p16 cell senescence marker can be used for diagnostics of the organism aging in cases without periodontal pathology.
chronic parodontitis, age, apoptosis, TNFα